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Electric fish

Bird communication



Conference presentations (PPT files)


Stoddard PK, Markham MR (2006) Evolution from obsolete parts: signal plasticity in electric communication. Symposium on the evolution of sensory and signaling systems, Animal Behavior Society, Snowbird Resort, Salt Lake City. [animation file] [Powerpoint for Macintosh] [Powerpoint for Win XP]

Markham MR, Haskell-Luevano C, Stoddard PK (2004) A melanocortin receptor modulates electrocyte action potentials via a cAMP/PKA pathway. Soc. Neuroscience Abstracts 334.7

Markham MR, Stoddard PK (2003) Melanocortins modulate the amplitude and repolarization time of electrocyte action potentials in male electric fish, Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus. Soc. Neuroscience Abstracts 88. [Powerpoint file of full poster] [1 page PDF version]

Salazar VL, Markham MR, Stoddard PK (2002) Serotonin rapidly enhances sexually dimorphic characters of the electric waveform of the gymnotiform electric fish Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus.  Soc. Neuroscience Abstracts 87.8 [Powerpoint file]

Stoddard PK, Kilburn MD, Patterson KH (1996) Complex electric signal structure in reproducing gymnotiform electric fish. Soc Neurosci Abstr 22(179.6),450.

Stoddard PK, Rasnow B, Assad C (1995) Electric organ discharges of the gymnotiform fish Brachyhypopomus spp. Nervous Systems and Behavior, Proc. 4th Intl. Congress of Neuroethology. 417.

Stoddard PK (1994) Low frequency electric field production and concealment in gymnotiform fish with pulsed electric organ discharges. Soc Neurosci Abstr 24(159.5),370.

Assad C, Rasnow B, Stoddard P, Bower JM (1994) Maps of the electric organ discharges of several gymnotiform fish. Soc Neurosci Abstr 24(159.6),370.