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Electric fish

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Conference presentations (PPT files)


Neuroethology of Electric Fish

Contact P. Stoddard via email for a PDF of an article you are unable to obtain from your library <stoddard "at">.

Zubizarreta L, Stoddard PK, Silva A (in press)Aggression levels affect social interaction in the non-breeding territorial aggression of the weakly electric fish, Gymnotus omarorumBehaviour

Silva AC, Perrone R, Zubizarreta L, Batista G, Stoddard PK (2013)  Neuromodulation of the agonistic behavior in two species of weakly electric fish that display different types of aggression.  J Experimental Biology. 216, 2412-2420 [URL]

Gavassa S, Goldina A, Silva AC, Stoddard PK (2013) Behavioral ecology, endocrinology, and signal reliability of electric communication.  J Experimental Biology 216, 2403-2411 [URL]

Markham, M. R. and Stoddard, P. K. (2013) Cellular mechanisms of developmental and sex differences in the rapid hormonal modulation of a social communication signal. Hormones and Behavior 63, 586-597 [URL]

Gavassa S, Roach JP, Stoddard PK (2013) Social regulation of electric signal plasticity in male Brachyhypopomus gauderioJournal of Comparative Physiology A 199, 375-384 [URL]

Gavassa S, Stoddard PK (2012) Food restriction promotes signaling effort in a short-lived electric fish.  Hormones and Behavior 62:381–388 [URL]

Zubizarreta L, Perrone R, Stoddard PK, Costa G, Silva A (2012) Differential serotonergic modulation of two types of aggression in weakly electric fish. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 6:1-10 doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2012.00077 [URL]

Gavassa S, Silva AC, Gonzalez E, Molina J, Stoddard PK (2012) Social competition masculinizes the communication signals of female electric fish. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 66: 1057-1066. DOI 10.1007/s00265-012-1356-x [URL]

Gavassa S, Silva AC, Gonzalez E, Stoddard PK (2012) Signal modulation as a mechanism for handicap disposal. Animal Behaviour 83, 935-944 [URL]

Gavassa S, Silva AC, Stoddard PK  (2011) Tight hormonal phenotypic integration ensures honesty of the electric signal of male and female Brachyhypopomus gauderioHormones and Behavior 60:420-426 [URL]

Goldina A, Gavassa S, Stoddard PK (2011). Testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone have different regulatory effects on electric communication signals of male Brachyhypopomus gauderioHormones and Behavior 60:139-147 [URL]

Stoddard PK & Salazar VL(2011). Energetic cost of communication. Journal of Experimental Biology 214(Pt 2): 200-205. [URL] [PDF]

Markham MR, McAnelly ML, Stoddard PK, Zakon HH (2009) Circadian and social cues regulate ion channel trafficking. PLoS Biology 7(9), e1000203 [URL] [PDF]
Primer in PLoS Biology for non-experts [URL]

Salazar VL, Stoddard PK (2009). Social competition affects electric signal plasticity and steroid levels in the gymnotiform fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio. Hormones & Behavior 56:399-409. [PDF by email request]

Allee SJ, Markham MR, Stoddard PK (2009). Androgens enhance plasticity of an electric communication signal in female knifefish, Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus. Hormones and Behavior 56:264-273. [PDF by email request]

Markham MR, Allee SJ, Goldina A, Stoddard PK (2009) Melanocortins regulate the electric waveforms of gymnotiform electric fish. Hormones & Behavior 55:306-313 [PDF by email request]

Stoddard PK & Markham MR (2008) Signal cloaking in electric fish.  Bioscience 58:415-42. [PDF by email request]

Miranda M, Silva AC, Stoddard PK (2008) Use of space as an indicator of social behavior and breeding systems in the gymnotiform electric fish Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus. Environmental Biology of Fishes 83: 379-389. [PDF]

Salazar VL, Stoddard PK (2008) Sex differences in energetic costs explain sexual dimorphism in the circadian rhythm modulation of the electrocommunication signal of the gymnotiform fish Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatusJournal of Experimental Biology 211:1012-1020. [PDF]

Allee SJ, Markham MR, Salazar VL, Stoddard PK (2008) Opposing actions of 5HT1A and 5HT2-like serotonin receptors on modulations of the electric signal waveform in the electric fish Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatusHormones and Behavior  53:481-8. [PDF]

Albert JS, Zakon HH, Stoddard PK, Unguez GA, Holmberg SKS, Sussman MR (2008) The case for sequencing the genome of the electric eel Electrophorus electricus. Journal of Fish Biology 72:331-354 [PDF]

Stoddard PK, Markham MR, Salazar VL, Allee S (2007) Circadian rhythms in electric waveform structure and rate in the electric fish Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus. Physiology & Behavior 90:11-20. DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2006.08.013 [PDF 2.8MB]

Stoddard PK, Zakon HH, Markham MR, McAnelly L (2006) Regulation and modulation of electric waveforms in gymnotiform electric fish.   Journal of Comparative Physiology A. 192(6):613-24. DOI 10.1007/s00359-006-0101-1[PDF 506 KB] "The original publication is available at".

Stoddard PK (2006) Plasticity of the electric organ discharge waveform: contexts, mechanisms, and implications for electrocommunication. In: Communication in Fishes. ch. 22, pp 623-646.  F. Ladich, S.P. Collin, P. Moller, B.G. Kapoor, eds.   Science Publisher, Inc., Enfield, NH, USA [PDF 2.1 MB]

Markham MR, Stoddard PK (2005) Adrenocorticotropic hormone enhances the masculinity of an electric communication signal by modulating the waveform and timing of action potentials within individual cells. Journal of Neuroscience 25: 8746-8754 [PDF 2 MB]

Curtis CC, Stoddard PK (2003) Active mate choice in an electric fish, Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus. Animal Behaviour 66:329-336. [PDF 236 KB]

Stoddard PK, Markham MR, Salazar VL (2003) Serotonin modulates the electric waveform of the gymnotiform electric fish, Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatusJournal of Experimental Biology. 206:1353-1362 [PDF 784 KB]

Stoddard PK (2002) The evolutionary origins of electric signal complexity. Journal of Physiology - Paris, 96:485-491. [PDF 208 KB]

Stoddard PK. (2002) Electric signals: predation, sex, and environmental constraints. Advances in the Study of Behaviour, 31: 201-242 [PDF 2.7 MB].

Franchina CR, Salazar VL, Volmar C-H, Stoddard PK (2001) Plasticity of the electric organ discharge waveform of male Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus. II. Social effects. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 187:45-52 [PDF 224 KB]

Stoddard PK (1999). Predation enhances complexity in the evolution of electric fish signals. Nature 400, 254-256 [PDF 220 KB]

Stoddard PK, Rasnow B, Assad C. (1999) Electric fields of the gymnotiform fishes: III. Brachyhypopomus. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 184:609-630 [PDF 908 KB]

Assad C, Rasnow B, Stoddard PK (1999) Electric organ discharges and electric images during electrolocation. Journal of Experimental Biology. 202: 1185-1193 [PDF 396 KB]

Franchina CR, Stoddard PK. (1998) Plasticity of the electric organ discharge waveform of the electric fish Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus : I. Quantification of day-night changes. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 183:759-768 [PDF 908 KB]

Assad C, Rasnow B, Stoddard PK, Bower JM. (1998) Electric fields of the gymnotiform fishes: II. Eigenmannia. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 183(4):419-432 [PDF 836 KB]

Stoddard PK (1998) Detection of multiple stimulus features forces a trade-off in the pyramidal cell network of a gymnotiform electric fish's electrosensory lateral line lobe. Journal of Comparative Physiology A. 182:103-113 [PDF 1.0 MB]

Franchina CR (1997) Ontogeny of the electric organ discharge and the electric organ in the weakly electric pulse fish Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus (Hypopomidae, Gymnotiformes) J. Comparative Physiology A 181(2): 111-119 [click for abstract and link to PDF file]